Monday, November 24, 2014

Bunker Hill Monument


Bunker Hill Monument
"Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes!" This legendary order has come to symbolize the conviction and determination of the ill-equipped American colonists facing powerful British forces during the famous battle fought on this site on June 17, 1775. The battle is popularly known as "The Battle of Bunker Hill" although most of the fighting actually took place on Breed's Hill, the site of the existing monument and exhibit lodge. Today, a 221-foot granite obelisk marks the site of the first major battle of the American Revolution.

The Battle of Bunker Hill pitted a newly-formed and inexperienced colonial army against the more highly trained and better-equipped British. Despite the colonial army's shortcomings, it was led by such capable men as Colonel William Prescott, Colonel John Stark and General Israel Putnam, who had experience fighting alongside the British in the French and Indian War. Although the British Army ultimately prevailed in the battle, the colonists greatly surprised the British by repelling two major assaults and inflicting great casualties. Out of the 2,200 British ground forces and artillery engaged at the battle, almost half (1,034) were counted afterwards as casualties (both killed and wounded). The colonists lost between 400 and 600 combined casualties, including popular patriot leader and newly-elected Major-General Dr. Joseph Warren, who was killed during the third and final assault.

The first monument on the site was an 18-foot wooden pillar with a gilt urn erected in 1794 by King Solomon's Lodge of Masons to honor fallen patriot and mason, Dr. Joseph Warren. In 1823, a group of prominent citizens formed the Bunker Hill Monument Association to construct a more permanent and significant monument to commemorate the famous battle. The existing monument was finally completed in 1842 and dedicated on June 17, 1843, in a major national ceremony. The exhibit lodge was built in the late nineteenth century to house a statue of Dr. Warren.
Visit the new Battle of Bunker Hill Museum

For hours...


Bunker Hill Site Bulletin (1.9mb pdf)
Salem Poor: A brave and gallant soldier (76kb pdf)
What? No Elevator? And Other Facts About Bunker Hill Monument (232kb pdf)

Sunday, November 16, 2014

Snowbird, Utah


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cliff Lodge
Cliff Lodge
Location Wasatch National Forest
Little Cottonwood Canyon
Salt Lake County, Utah
 United States
Nearest city Sandy: 4 miles (6 km)
Salt Lake City: 29 mi (47 km)
Coordinates 40°34′52″N 111°39′23″WCoordinates: 40°34′52″N 111°39′23″W
Vertical 3,240 ft (988 m)
Top elevation 11,000 ft (3,353 m)
Base elevation 7,760 ft (2,365 m)
lowest chairlift
8,100 feet (2,469 m)
main base area
Skiable area 2,500 acres (10.1 km2)
Runs 89 total
Ski trail rating symbol-green circle.svg 27% easiest
Ski trail rating symbol-blue square.svg 38% more difficult
Ski trail rating symbol-black diamond.svg 35% most difficult
Longest run 2.5 miles (4.0 km)
Chip's Run
Lift system 13 lifts:
- 1 tram
- 6 hi-speed quad chairs
- 4 double chairs
- 2 surface lifts
Lift capacity 17,400 / hr
Terrain parks 1
Snowfall 500 in (1,270 cm), average
record: 783 in (1,990 cm), (2011)
Night skiing limited
Snowbird is an unincorporated community in Little Cottonwood Canyon in the Wasatch Range of the Rocky Mountains in Salt Lake County, Utah, U.S. It is most famous for Snowbird Ski and Summer Resort, an alpine skiing and snowboarding area, which opened in December 1971.


Snowbird is a multi-facility winter and summer resort located in Little Cottonwood Canyon, Utah. Primarily known for its winter powder skiing and snowboarding, Snowbird also hosts hikers, mountain bikers, fishermen, sightseers, and mountain vacationers in other seasons. Set among spectacular crenelated granite mountain peaks, facilities include ski lifts, hotels, condominiums, spa facilities, restaurants, skiing and mountain-resort-related retail businesses, medical services and others.
Snowbird was imagined, named, and developed by Ted Johnson. For nearly a decade, Johnson managed the Alta Lodge in the town of Alta at the head of Little Cottonwood Canyon. During that period he explored the terrain below Alta in the Peruvian Gulch and Emma Mine/Gad Valley watersheds that later became Snowbird. Vision, drive, and fortuitous acquaintances made at the Alta Lodge made it possible for Johnson to begin development of the Snowbird Resort. Johnson, who was well suited to managing rapid development cycles, was also fixated on the central theme of the project, having fun on the mountain. During the development cycle, he, together with a number of the area's more adventurous skiers including Junior Bounous, Eddie Morris, snow ranger Peter Lev and others scored first descents on pitches that were to become essential to the Snowbird legend.
Johnson met Dick Bass, a Texas oilman, in 1969, and the two of them opened Snowbird in 1971. In 1974, Johnson sold his interest in Snowbird to Bass. Bass's achievement is remarkable in that Snowbird, which operates almost entirely on National Forest Service land and has ownership rights to a very small holding, relies for revenue on skiers, snowboarders and other visitors, unlike so many ski resorts that are little more than real estate developments.
Before Little Cottonwood Canyon became popular with skiers, miners discovered deposits of silver ore within the glacial canyon. The history of Little Cottonwood Canyon and the town of Alta dates back to the 19th Century, when a U.S. Army soldier first prospected for silver in 1869. The tiny minerals he stumbled upon soon supported a massive industry. Little Cottonwood Canyon became one of the largest producers of silver ore in the Wasatch Mountains. Known as the Emma Mine and the namesake for the Big Emma run in Snowbird’s Gad Valley, the soldier’s find eventually produced more than $3.8 million in silver.
At its peak, 8,000 people lived and worked in the narrow canyon, which held two smelters, 138 homes, hotels, boarding houses, stores and even a railroad. The entire town was later destroyed by a series of avalanches.[1]
In February 2001, Snowbird served as meeting place for the authors of the Agile Manifesto, which sparked the agile software development movement.
On May 12, 2014 an ownership change was announced. Ian Cumming, a wealthy businessman with long business and personal ties to Snowbird, became majority owner in partnership with Bass, who remains chairman.[2]

Ski resort

Snowbird is located in Utah

location of Snowbird, east of Sandy
Inside the Snowbird Cliff Lodge in 2006
Snowbird resort is a year-round ski and summer resort located in the heart of the Wasatch National Forest on the eastern border of the Salt Lake City suburb of Sandy. It is 29 miles (47 km) from Salt Lake City International Airport, 24 miles (39 km) from downtown Salt Lake City and 4 miles (6 km) east of the suburb of Sandy. The resort first opened in December 1971.
Snowbird shares Little Cottonwood Canyon with Alta Ski Area to the east, just up the canyon over a ridge that separates the two. Beginning winter 2002, the two resorts offer a joint day pass and a joint season ticket allowing full access all of the terrain on both mountains: 26 ski lifts and tows and a skiable area of 4,700 acres (19 km2). The collaboration coincided with the opening of a new lift in Mineral Basin, a large bowl owned by Snowbird on the back of Snowbird's Hidden Peak and Alta's Sugarloaf mountains that had been skiable within the resort since 1999. The installation of Baldy Express in 2002 allowed access to Alta from the Basin. Other access points between the two resorts exist as well. The offer is open to skiers only, as a result of Alta's skiers-only (no snowboards) policy.
Both areas receive more than 500 inches (1,270 cm) of snowfall per year, due to lake-effect enhancement from the Great Salt Lake, making them the second snowiest ski areas (after the ones in the Cascades). Unlike the humid and wet snow of the Cascades near the Pacific Ocean, however, the arid condition of the Great Basin produces very dry and powdery snow, making Snowbird and Alta top global destinations for powder-skiing aficionados.
Snowbird usually closes on Memorial Day in late May while the occasional ski year can last as long as the Fourth of July on the upper part of the mountain (accessed by the aerial tram), perennially offering the longest ski season in Utah. Snowbird has a skiable area of 2,500 acres (10.1 km2) with a vertical drop of 3,240 feet (988 m) from the summit of Hidden Peak, which has an elevation of above 11,000 feet (3,353 m). Hidden Peak is serviced by an aerial tram from the base area.
The resort covers three drainage areas: Peruvian Gulch, Gad Valley, and Mineral Basin. Snowbird is perennially celebrated by industry magazines for its exceptional snowfall, vast and wide-ranging terrain and easy accessibility from the Salt Lake City International Airport.
Snowbird set a resort record of 776 inches (1,971 cm) of cumulative snow (mid-mountain measurement) in May 2011.


Snowbird currently has 10 chairlifts (6 high-speed quads, 4 doubles), a surface lift, an aerial tram, and a 600-foot (180 m) tunnel enclosing a one-way conveyor lift connecting Peruvian Gulch to Mineral Basin allowing easier access for beginners and intermediates to new terrain. The tunnel, the first of its kind in North America, also allows for skier transport when winds require the closing of the aerial tram. New in the 2013–14 season is the Gad 2 High Speed Quad, replacing the double that followed the same lift line.
The Little Cottonwood Canyon resort has a total of four lodges, including the Iron Blossom, the Inn, the Lodge at Snowbird, and the Cliff Lodge. The resort also has many gift shops, restaurants, arcades, a popular fine-dining Sunday brunch, hiking trails, several pools and a full-service rooftop spa.
Snowbird Tunnel with Magic Carpet Ski Lift Video
Snowbird also offers one of the most accessible mountain meeting destinations in North America. The resort has 50,000 square feet (4,600 m2) of meeting space along with 31 meeting rooms and a 15,000-square-foot (1,400 m2) Event Center available in the summer.


Skiing Magazine ranked the Alta-Snowbird ski area second in North America overall and first in the United States for the 2003-04 and 2004-05 seasons. According to SKI Magazine (October 2002) Snowbird ranked 20th in North America with Gold Medals in snow, access, challenge, terrain, scenery, weather, and lifts. In specific categories it was ranked third in North America for snow, fourth in North America for challenge, and fifth in North America for terrain. Snowbird ranks as the second best resort in North America, runner-up to Whistler Blackcomb resort in Canada, according to Skiing Magazine. More recently, Outside named Alta-Snowbird the number one ski destination in North America for the 2008-09 season. The ski school at Snowbird is well regarded, and two of Snowbird’s mountain school instructors, Rob Sogard and Nancy Thoreson, made SKI Magazine's Top 100 list.
Snowbird, Utah tram top station, mechanical details
Chairlifts and Tram
  • Peruvian Express High Speed Quad
  • Gadzoom High Speed Quad
  • Mineral-Basin Express High Speed Quad
  • Baldy Express High Speed Quad
  • Little Cloud High Speed Quad
  • Gad 2 High Speed Quad
  • Wilbere Double
  • Mid-Gad Double
  • Baby Thunder Double
  • Chickadee Double
  • Aerial Tram