Thursday, July 23, 2015

Derby, England

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the city in England. For other uses, see Derby (disambiguation).
Derby
City and Unitary authority area
City of Derby
Derby Skyline and landmarks, clockwise from top left: Derby Quad, Derby Cathedral, Intu Derby.
Derby Skyline and landmarks, clockwise from top left: Derby Quad, Derby Cathedral, Intu Derby.
Official logo of Derby
Arms of Derby City Council
Motto: "Industria, Virtus, et Fortitudo"
Derby shown within Derbyshire and England
Derby shown within Derbyshire and England
Coordinates: 52°55.32′N 1°28.55′W
Sovereign state  United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region East Midlands
Ceremonial county Derbyshire
Admin HQ Derby
Settled AD 600
City Status 1977
Government
 • Type Unitary authority, City
 • Governing body Derby City Council
 • Leadership Leader & Cabinet
 • Executive Labour
 • MPs Margaret Beckett (L)
Amanda Solloway (C)
Area
 • City and Unitary authority area 78.03 km2 (30.13 sq mi)
Population (2011 Census)
 • City and Unitary authority area 248,700
 • Density 3,028/km2 (7,840/sq mi)
 • Urban 236,300
 • Metro 1,543,000 (Nottingham-Derby)[1]
 • Ethnicity
(Office for National Statistics 2011 Census)[2]
80.2% White
12.6% Asian
3.0% Black British
1.3% Other
2.9% Mixed Race
Time zone Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0)
Postcode span DE1, DE3, DE21-24, DE73
Area code(s) 01332
Grid Ref. SK3533936187
ONS code 00FK (ONS)
E06000015 (GSS)
ISO 3166-2 GB-DER
NUTS 3 UKF11
Demonym Derbeian
Website "Derby City Council". Retrieved 23 July 2011.
Derby (Listeni/ˈdɑrbi/ DAR-bi) is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands region of England. It lies upon the banks of the River Derwent in the south of the County of Derby, of which it is the county town. In the 2011 census, the city had a population of 248,700 and 1,543,000 in the wider metro area.
As home to Lombe's Mill, the first factory in the world, Derby is considered a birthplace of the Industrial Revolution. With the arrival of the railways in the 19th century, and due to its strategic central location, the city grew to become a foremost centre of the British rail industry.
Today, Derby is an internationally renowned centre for advanced transport manufacturing, home to the world’s second largest aero-engine manufacturer, Rolls-Royce, and Derby Litchurch Lane Works—the UK's only remaining train manufacturer. The Toyota Manufacturing UK's automobile headquarters is found just south of the city at Burnaston.

History

Origins

The tower of Derby Cathedral.[3]
View of Derby Cathedral Facing Clock Tower
The Roman camp of 'Derventio' was probably at Little Chester/Chester Green (grid reference SK353375); The site of the old Roman fort is at Chester Green. Later the town was one of the 'Five Boroughs' (fortified towns) of the Danelaw.
Djúra-bý, recorded in Anglo-Saxon as Deoraby "Village of the Deer". This popular belief is asserted by Tim Lambert who states, "The name Derby is derived from the Danish words deor by meaning deer settlement" without reference or proof.[4]
However the origin of the name "Derby" would seem to be elusive, some assert that it is a corruption of the original Roman name 'Derventio'. The name could be linked with the river which flows through it, the Derwent, in that it could be a shortened version of Derwent by, meaning "Derwent settlement". The name "Derwent" is Celtic and means "a valley thick with oaks".[5]
The town name appears, nevertheless, as 'Darby' or 'Darbye' on early modern maps, such as that of Speed (1610).
Modern research (2004) into the history and archaeology of Derby has provided evidence that the Vikings and Anglo-Saxons probably co-existed, occupying two areas of land surrounded by water. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (c. 900) says that "Derby is divided by water". These areas of land were known as Norþworþig ("Northworthy", = "north enclosure") and Deoraby, and were at the "Irongate" (north) side of Derby.[6]

16th century – 18th century

During the Civil War of 1642–1646, Derby was garrisoned by Parliamentary troops commanded by Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet, who was appointed Governor of Derby in 1643. These troops took part in the defence of nearby Nottingham, the Siege of Lichfield, the Battle of Hopton Heath and many other engagements in Nottinghamshire, Staffordshire and Cheshire, as well as successfully defending Derbyshire against Royalist armies.
A hundred years later, Bonnie Prince Charlie set up camp at Derby on 4 December 1745, whilst on his way south to seize the British crown. The prince called at The George Inn on Irongate, where the Duke of Devonshire had set up his headquarters, and demanded billets for his 9,000 troops.
Statue of Bonnie Prince Charlie on Cathedral Green
He stayed at Exeter House, Full Street where he held his "council of war". A replica of the room is on display at Derby Museum in the city centre. He had received misleading information about an army coming to meet him south of Derby. Although he wished to continue with his quest, he was over-ruled by his fellow officers. He abandoned his invasion at Swarkestone Bridge on the River Trent just a few miles south of Derby. As a testament to his belief in his cause, the prince – who on the march from Scotland had walked at the front of the column – made the return journey on horseback at the rear of the bedraggled and tired army.

Industrial Revolution

Derby and Derbyshire were centres of Britain's Industrial Revolution. In 1717, Derby was the site of the first water powered silk mill in Britain, built by John Lombe and George Sorocold, after Lombe had reputedly stolen the secrets of silk-throwing from Piedmont in Italy (he is alleged to have been poisoned by the Piedmontese as revenge in 1722).
In 1759, Jedediah Strutt patented and built a machine called the Derby Rib Attachment[7] that revolutionised the manufacture of hose. This attachment was used on the Rev. Lee's Framework Knitting Machine; it was placed in front of – and worked in unison with – Lee's Frame, to produce ribbed hose (stockings). The partners were Jedediah Strutt, William Woollatt (who had been joined in 1758 by John Bloodworth and Thomas Stafford, all leading hosiers in Derby). The patent was obtained in January 1759. After three years, Bloodworth and Stafford were paid off, and Samuel Need – a hosier of Nottingham – joined the partnership. The firm was known as Need, Strutt and Woollatt. The patent expired in 1773,[8] though the partnership continued until 1781 when Need died.
Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1801 14,695 —    
1851 48,506 +230.1%
1901 118,469 +144.2%
1921 142,824 +20.6%
1941 167,321 +17.2%
1951 181,423 +8.4%
1961 199,578 +10.0%
1971 219,558 +10.0%
1981 214,424 −2.3%
1991 225,296 +5.1%
2001 221,716 −1.6%
2011 248,700 +12.2%
[9]
Messrs Wright, the bankers of Nottingham, recommended that Richard Arkwright apply to Strutt and Need for finance for his cotton spinning mill. The first mill opened in Nottingham in 1770 and was driven by horses. In 1771 Richard Arkwright, Samuel Need and Jedediah Strutt built the world's first commercially successful water-powered cotton spinning mill at Cromford, Derbyshire, developing a form of power that was to be a catalyst for the Industrial Revolution.[10][11][12]
This was followed in Derbyshire by Jedediah Strutt's cotton spinning mills at Belper. They were: South Mill, the first, 1775; North Mill, 1784, which was destroyed by fire on 12 January 1803 and then rebuilt; it started work again at the end of 1804; West Mill, 1792, commenced working 1796; Reeling Mill, 1897; Round Mill, which took 10 years to build, from 1803 to 1813, and commenced working in 1816; and Milford Mills, 1778. The Belper and Milford mills were not built in partnership with Arkwright. These mills were all Strutt owned and financed.
Other famous 18th-century figures with connections to Derby include the painter Joseph Wright, known as Wright of Derby, who was famous for his revolutionary use of light in his paintings and was an associate of the Royal Academy; and John Whitehurst, a famous clockmaker and philosopher. Erasmus Darwin, doctor, scientist, philosopher and grandfather of Charles Darwin, whose practice was based in Lichfield, Staffordshire was a frequent visitor to Derby, having founded the Derby Philosophical Society.
The beginning of the next century saw Derby emerging as an engineering centre with manufacturers such as James Fox, who exported machine tools to Russia.
In 1840, the North Midland Railway set up its works in Derby and, when it merged with the Midland Counties Railway and the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway, to form the Midland Railway, Derby became its headquarters.
The connection with the railway encouraged others, notably Andrew Handyside, Charles Fox and his son Francis Fox.
A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Normanton Barracks in 1877.[13]
Derby was one of the boroughs reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, and it became a county borough with the Local Government Act 1888. The borough expanded in 1877 to include Little Chester and Litchurch, and then in 1890 to include New Normanton and Rowditch. The borough did not increase substantially again until 1968, when under a recommendation of the Local Government Boundary Commission it was expanded into large parts of the rural district of Belper, Repton and South East Derbyshire. This vastly increased Derby's population from 132,408 in the 1961 census to 219,578 in the 1971 census.[14]
Derby Industrial Museum/Silk Mill World Heritage Site
Despite being one of the areas of Britain furthest from the sea, Derby holds a special place in the history of marine safety – it was as MP for Derby that Samuel Plimsoll introduced his bills for a 'Plimsoll line' (and other marine safety measures). This failed on first introduction, but was successful in 1876 and contributed to Plimsoll's re-election as an MP.

20th century to present day

An industrial boom began in Derby when Rolls-Royce opened a car and aircraft factory in the town in 1907. In 1923, the Midland Railway became part of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway with headquarters in London. However, Derby remained a major rail manufacturing centre, second only to Crewe and Wolverton. Moreover it remained a design and development centre and in the 'thirties, on the direction of Lord Stamp, the LMS Scientific Research Laboratory was opened on London Road.[citation needed]
In World War I, Derby was targeted by German Zeppelin air bombers, who killed five people in a 1916 raid on the town.[15]
All Saints Church was designated as a cathedral in 1927, signalling that the town was ready for city status.[citation needed]
Slum clearance in the 1920s and 1930s saw the central area of Derby become less heavily populated as families were rehoused on new council estates in the suburbs, where houses for private sale were also constructed. Rehousing, council house building and private housing developments continued on a large scale for some 30 years after the end of World War II in 1945.[4]
Production and repair work continued at the railway works. In December 1947 the Locomotive Works unveiled Britain's first mainline passenger diesel-electric locomotive"Number 10000". In 1958 production switched over to diesel locomotives completely. Meanwhile the Carriage and Wagon Works were building the first of the Diesel Multiple Units which were to take over many of the services.
In 1964 the British Rail Research Division opened to study all aspects of railway engineering from first principles. Its first success was in drastically improving the reliability and speed of goods trains, work which led to the development of the Advanced Passenger Train.
Derby gained a high profile in sport following the appointment of Brian Clough as manager of Derby County F.C. in 1967. Promotion to the Football League First Division was achieved in 1969, and County were champions of the English league three years later. Following the Clough's resignation in 1973, his successor Dave Mackay guided Derby County to another league title in 1975, but this remains to date the club's last major trophy; relegation followed in 1980 and top flight status was not regained until 1987, since then Derby have spent a total of 11 seasons (1987–1991, 1996–2002, 2007–2008) in the top flight. The club moved from its century-old Baseball Ground in 1997 to the new Pride Park Stadium.[16]
Derby was awarded city status on 7 June 1977 by Queen Elizabeth II to mark the 25th anniversary of her ascension to the throne.[17] The Queen presented the "charter scroll" or 'letters patent' in person on 28 July 1977 on the steps of the Council House to the then Mayor Councillor Jeffrey Tillet (Conservative).[18] Until then, Derby had been one of the few towns in England with a cathedral but not city status.
Derby holds an important position in the history of the Labour movement, because it was one of two seats (the other being Keir Hardie's in Merthyr Tydfil) gained by the recently formed Labour Representation Committee at the 1900 general election. The MP was Richard Bell, General Secretary of the Railway Servants Union. Bell was succeeded in 1910 by Jimmy Thomas and he in turn by the distinguished polymath and Nobel Laureate Philip Noel-Baker in 1936.
Despite its strategic industries (rail and aero-engine), Derby suffered comparatively little damage in both world wars (contrast Bristol and Filton). This may in part have been due to the jamming against the German radio-beam navigations systems (X-Verfahren and Knickebein, camouflage and decoy techniques ('Starfish sites') were built, mainly south of the town, e.g. out in fields near Foremark (ref. Kirk, Felix & Bartnik, 2002, see talk; see also[19]).
Derby has also become a significant cultural centre for the deaf community in the British. Many deaf people move to Derby because of its strong sign language-using community. It is estimated that the deaf population in Derby is at least three times higher than the national average, and that only London has a larger deaf population. The Royal School for the Deaf on Ashbourne Road provides education in British Sign Language and English.

Government

Local government

By traditional definitions, Derby is the county town of Derbyshire, although Derbyshire's administrative centre has in recent years been Matlock. On 1 April 1997 Derby City Council became again a unitary authority (a status it had held, as a county borough, up until 1974), with the rest of Derbyshire administered from Matlock. On 7 July 2014, Derby's first ever youth mayor (Belal Butt) was elected.

UK Parliament

Derby was a single United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency represented by two members of parliament until 1950, when it was divided into the single-member constituencies of Derby North and Derby South.

National HQ

The Rail Accident Investigation Branch has its headquarters in The Wharf, a facility in Derby.[20] RAIB has one of its two operational centres in Derby.[21][22]

Geography

Derby is split into 17 wards.[23]
Ward Areas within the ward
Abbey Stockbrook and Normanton (part of)
Allestree Allestree and Markeaton Park
Alvaston Alvaston, Crewton, Litchurch, Pride Park, Wilmorton and Allenton (Part of)
Arboretum City Centre, Pear Tree and Rose Hill
Blagreaves Sunny Hill and Littleover (part of)
Boulton Boulton and Allenton (part of)
Chaddesden Chaddesden (older part of)
Chellaston Chellaston and Shelton Lock
Darley Darley Abbey, Five Lamps, Little Chester (also known as Chester Green), Strutt's Park, Six Streets and West End
Derwent Breadsall Hilltop and Chaddesden (newer part of)
Littleover Littleover (most of) and Heatherton Village
Mackworth Mackworth and Morley Estate
Mickleover Mickleover
Normanton Normanton (most of) and Austin Estate
Oakwood Oakwood and Chaddesden (part of)
Sinfin Sinfin, Osmaston and Stenson Fields (part of)
Spondon Spondon

Nearby settlements

Industry

Derby's two biggest employers, Rolls-Royce plc and the Toyota Motor Corporation are engaged in engineering manufacturing. Other companies of note include railway systems engineering firm Bombardier Transportation who manufacture railway rolling stock at the Derby Carriage and Wagon Works, HeroTSC, who deal with much of Sky's telephone support, and Alstom who manufacture large power plant boilers and heat exchangers.
Derby was for many years a railway centre, being the former headquarters of the Midland Railway, with both British Rail workshops and research facilities in the town. Although much less important than in years gone by, limited train manufacture still continues in Derby and Derby railway station retains an important position in the railway network. The city is favoured as a site for a national railway centre.[24]
From 1922 Sinfin Lane was the home of the 62-acre (250,000 m2) site of International Combustion, originally manufacturers of machinery for the automatic delivery of pulverised fuel to furnaces and boilers, and later producing steam-generating boilers for use in electrical generating plant such as used in power stations. In the 1990s the firm was bought by Rolls-Royce plc and then sold on again to ABB Group.[25]
Derby was the home of Core Design (originally based on Ashbourne Road), who developed the world famous video game Tomb Raider. When Derby's inner ring road was completed in 2010, a section of it was named 'Lara Croft Way' after the game's heroine Lara Croft.
One of Derby's longest-established businesses is Royal Crown Derby, which has been producing porcelain since the 1750s.
The Midlands Co-operative Society, a predecessor of Central England Co-operative, traced its origins to Derby Co-operative Provident Society which, in 1854, was one of the first co-operatives in the region.
Infinity Park Derby is a planned business park for aerospace, rail and automotive technology adjacent to the Rolls-Royce site in Sinfin. In December 2014, the government announced that the park would gain enterprise zone status by being added to Nottingham Enterprise Zone.[26]

Climate

Under the Köppen climatic classification, Derby, in spite of its distance to large bodies of water, has an oceanic climate along with the rest of the British Isles. The readings are from the closest station available in Watnall, but climate tends to be very similar between stations and cities in the region, although the Watnall station is located at a somewhat higher elevation, 17 kilometres (11 mi) to the north.[27]
[hide]Climate data for Watnall
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.6
(43.9)
7.0
(44.6)
9.7
(49.5)
12.5
(54.5)
16.1
(61)
18.9
(66)
21.3
(70.3)
21.0
(69.8)
17.9
(64.2)
13.7
(56.7)
9.7
(49.5)
6.7
(44.1)
13.42
(56.18)
Average low °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
1.1
(34)
2.8
(37)
4.3
(39.7)
7.1
(44.8)
10.0
(50)
12.1
(53.8)
12.0
(53.6)
10.0
(50)
7.1
(44.8)
3.9
(39)
1.6
(34.9)
6.11
(42.99)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 61.2
(2.409)
47.2
(1.858)
49.5
(1.949)
53.8
(2.118)
51.8
(2.039)
62.5
(2.461)
57.6
(2.268)
62.0
(2.441)
58.6
(2.307)
71.2
(2.803)
65.7
(2.587)
68.6
(2.701)
709.4
(27.929)
Avg. precipitation days 11 10 11 10 9 9 9 9 9 11 11 12 121
Mean monthly sunshine hours 54.7 73.2 104.2 141.0 181.6 170.6 191.1 180.1 131.2 99.4 63.7 49.2 1,440.1
Source: Met Office[28]

Landmarks

Derby Cathedral tower is 212 feet (68.6 meters) tall to the tip of the pinnacles. This has been home to a pair of breeding peregrine falcons since 2006.[29] Four webcams monitor the falcons here.[30]
Derby Gaol is a visitor attraction based in the dungeons of the Derbyshire County Gaol which dates back to 1756.
Derby Industrial Museum is situated in Derby Silk Mill and shows the industrial heritage and technological achievement of Derby, including Rolls-Royce aero engines, railways, mining, quarrying and foundries. Currently closed due to council cuts. The Silk Mill stands at the southern end of the 24 km (15 mi) stretch of the River Derwent designated a World Heritage Site in 2001.
Pickford's House Museum
Pickford's House Museum was built by architect Joseph Pickford in 1770. It was his home and business headquarters. Derby Museum and Art Gallery shows paintings by Joseph Wright, as well as fine Royal Crown Derby porcelain, natural history, local regiments and archaeology. Pickford also designed St Helen's House in King Street.
The skyline of the inner city changed in 1968 when the inner ring road with its two new crossings of the River Derwent was built. The route of the ring road went through the St. Alkmund's Church and its Georgian churchyard, the only Georgian square in Derby. Both were demolished to make way for the road, a move still criticised today. Thus the editor (Elizabeth Williamson) of the 2nd edition of Pevsner for Derbyshire wrote:- '...the character and cohesion of the centre has been completely altered by the replacement of a large number of C18 houses in the centre by a multi-lane road. As a traffic scheme this road is said to be a triumph; as townscape it is a disaster.'

Places of interest

Derby Guidhall, symbolic seat of local government, today serves primarily as a 240-seat theatre. It was built after the previous hall was destroyed by fire in 1841.

Transport

Roads

Mercian Way, looking across Abbey Street towards Uttoxeter New Road
The city has extensive transport links with other areas of the country. The M1 motorway passes about ten miles (16 km) to the east of the city, linking Derby southwards to the London area and northwards to Sheffield and Leeds. Other major roads passing through or near Derby include the A6 (historically the main route from London to Carlisle, also linking to Leicester and Manchester), A38 (Bodmin to Mansfield via Bristol and Birmingham), A50 (Warrington to Leicester via Stoke-on-Trent), A52 (Newcastle-under-Lyme to Mablethorpe, including Brian Clough Way linking Derby to Nottingham) and A61 (Derby to Thirsk via Sheffield and Leeds).
On 16 March 2011, Mercian Way, the final section of the city's inner ring road, was opened to traffic.[31] This new section connects Burton Road with Uttoxeter New Road, and crosses Abbey Street. Abbey Street is the only road between the two ends from which Mercian Way can be accessed.
Bold Lane Car Park in Derby has been cited as one of the ten most secure places in the world.[32]

Railways

Derby Station
Derby has been served by railways since 1840 with the opening of the North Midland Railway to Leeds, with a route to London via Rugby provided by the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway. At the same time, a route to Nottingham and Leicester was opened by the Midland Counties Railway. In 1844, these three companies merged to form the Midland Railway who subsequently opened a direct route to London St Pancras station. The present day station, Derby Midland is on the same site as 1840 and the original platform visibly forms the sub-structure of the modern Platform 1. The Midland Railway frontage was replaced in 1985, and during 2008 and 2009 the 1950s concrete platform canopies were replaced with steel and glass structures.
Derby station is operated by East Midlands Trains and the city is served by expresses to London, the North East and South West, provided by East Midlands Trains and CrossCountry. There also remain local stations at Peartree and Spondon, although services are limited, especially at the former.
The Great Northern Railway's "Derbyshire and North Staffordshire Extension" formerly ran through Derby Friargate Station, from Colwick and Nottingham to Egginton Junction. After closure, part of the route west of Derby was used by British Rail as a test track. Today, the trackbed either side of Derby is blocked only by road development and has been converted to a Sustrans cycle track. The ornate cast iron bridge by Andrew Handyside across Friargate is still in place, as is his bridge over the river.

Railway engineering

Annual dinner of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers held in the carriage works of the Midland Railway at Derby in 1898. Samuel Johnson, the railway's Chief Mechanical Engineer was the institution president.
As a consequence of the Midland Railway basing their headquarters in Derby, along with their Locomotive and Carriage and Wagon Works, the railways had been a major influence on the development of the town during the Victorian period.
However, as described above, during the 20th century, railway manufacturing developed elsewhere, while in Derby the emphasis shifted to other industries. Even though it had pioneered the introduction of diesel locomotives, new production finished in 1966. Repair work gradually diminished until, finally the locomotive works closed, the land being redeveloped as Pride Park. The only buildings remaining are those visible from Platform 6 of the station.
The Carriage and Wagon Works continues to build trains under Bombardier Transportation. The Railway Technical Centre continues to house railway businesses, including the headquarters of DeltaRail Group, formerly the British Rail Research Division.

Air

East Midlands Airport is situated about fifteen miles (24 km) from Derby city centre. Its proximity to Derby, the fact that the airport is in Leicestershire, and the traditional rivalry between the three cities (Derby, Leicester and Nottingham), meant that there was controversy concerning the airport's decision to prefix its name with Nottingham in 2004. In 2006, Nottingham East Midlands Airport reverted to its previous name. The airport is served by budget airlines, including Ryanair and Jet2, with services to domestic and European destinations.
Derby Airfield, located approximately 7 miles (11 km) southwest of the city centre has grass runways targeted at general aviation.

Bus and coach

A Derby Corporation trolleybus in Victoria Street, Derby, in 1967. The Derby trolleybus system closed on 9 September 1967.
Derby's former bus station was an art deco design by borough architect C.H. Aslin. Built in 1933, it was closed in 2005 and later demolished, despite the protests of environmentalists and conservationists. The unique cafe building is planned to be rebuilt at Crich Tramway Museum. A new bus station has been built on the site as part of the Riverlights development which was opened on Sunday the 28 March 2010. Since the closure of the old bus station, services have been using temporary stops on streets around the Morledge area. Most services in Derby now terminate at the bus station. The new bus station is modern, with 29 bays, 5 for coaches and 24 for general bus services. First, the concourse area where passengers board and alight was completed. The remainder of the building has been developed as a Holiday Inn and a Hilton Hotel as well as a convenience store which opened in late 2010.
Local bus services in and around Derby are run by a number of companies, but principally Trent Barton and Arriva Midlands. The city is on National Express' London to Manchester and Yorkshire to the South West routes.
Between 1932 and 1967, Derby Corporation operated the Derby trolleybus system. The last trolleybus ran on 9 September 1967. Several Derby vehicles have been preserved at Sandtoft and the East Anglia Transport Museum.