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This article is about the city in England. For other uses, see Derby (disambiguation).
|City and Unitary authority area|
|City of Derby|
Derby Skyline and landmarks, clockwise from top left: Derby Quad, Derby Cathedral, Intu Derby.
|Motto: "Industria, Virtus, et Fortitudo"|
Derby shown within Derbyshire and England
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|• Type||Unitary authority, City|
|• Governing body||Derby City Council|
|• Leadership||Leader & Cabinet|
|• MPs||Margaret Beckett (L)
Amanda Solloway (C)
|• City and Unitary authority area||78.03 km2 (30.13 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 Census)|
|• City and Unitary authority area||248,700|
|• Density||3,028/km2 (7,840/sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,543,000 (Nottingham-Derby)|
| • Ethnicity
(Office for National Statistics 2011 Census)
3.0% Black British
2.9% Mixed Race
|Time zone||Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0)|
|Postcode span||DE1, DE3, DE21-24, DE73|
|ONS code||00FK (ONS)
|Website||"Derby City Council". Retrieved 23 July 2011.|
As home to Lombe's Mill, the first factory in the world, Derby is considered a birthplace of the Industrial Revolution. With the arrival of the railways in the 19th century, and due to its strategic central location, the city grew to become a foremost centre of the British rail industry.
Today, Derby is an internationally renowned centre for advanced transport manufacturing, home to the world’s second largest aero-engine manufacturer, Rolls-Royce, and Derby Litchurch Lane Works—the UK's only remaining train manufacturer. The Toyota Manufacturing UK's automobile headquarters is found just south of the city at Burnaston.
See also: Timeline of Derby
Djúra-bý, recorded in Anglo-Saxon as Deoraby "Village of the Deer". This popular belief is asserted by Tim Lambert who states, "The name Derby is derived from the Danish words deor by meaning deer settlement" without reference or proof.
However the origin of the name "Derby" would seem to be elusive, some assert that it is a corruption of the original Roman name 'Derventio'. The name could be linked with the river which flows through it, the Derwent, in that it could be a shortened version of Derwent by, meaning "Derwent settlement". The name "Derwent" is Celtic and means "a valley thick with oaks".
The town name appears, nevertheless, as 'Darby' or 'Darbye' on early modern maps, such as that of Speed (1610).
Modern research (2004) into the history and archaeology of Derby has provided evidence that the Vikings and Anglo-Saxons probably co-existed, occupying two areas of land surrounded by water. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (c. 900) says that "Derby is divided by water". These areas of land were known as Norþworþig ("Northworthy", = "north enclosure") and Deoraby, and were at the "Irongate" (north) side of Derby.
16th century – 18th centuryDuring the Civil War of 1642–1646, Derby was garrisoned by Parliamentary troops commanded by Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet, who was appointed Governor of Derby in 1643. These troops took part in the defence of nearby Nottingham, the Siege of Lichfield, the Battle of Hopton Heath and many other engagements in Nottinghamshire, Staffordshire and Cheshire, as well as successfully defending Derbyshire against Royalist armies.
A hundred years later, Bonnie Prince Charlie set up camp at Derby on 4 December 1745, whilst on his way south to seize the British crown. The prince called at The George Inn on Irongate, where the Duke of Devonshire had set up his headquarters, and demanded billets for his 9,000 troops.
Industrial RevolutionDerby and Derbyshire were centres of Britain's Industrial Revolution. In 1717, Derby was the site of the first water powered silk mill in Britain, built by John Lombe and George Sorocold, after Lombe had reputedly stolen the secrets of silk-throwing from Piedmont in Italy (he is alleged to have been poisoned by the Piedmontese as revenge in 1722).
In 1759, Jedediah Strutt patented and built a machine called the Derby Rib Attachment that revolutionised the manufacture of hose. This attachment was used on the Rev. Lee's Framework Knitting Machine; it was placed in front of – and worked in unison with – Lee's Frame, to produce ribbed hose (stockings). The partners were Jedediah Strutt, William Woollatt (who had been joined in 1758 by John Bloodworth and Thomas Stafford, all leading hosiers in Derby). The patent was obtained in January 1759. After three years, Bloodworth and Stafford were paid off, and Samuel Need – a hosier of Nottingham – joined the partnership. The firm was known as Need, Strutt and Woollatt. The patent expired in 1773, though the partnership continued until 1781 when Need died.
This was followed in Derbyshire by Jedediah Strutt's cotton spinning mills at Belper. They were: South Mill, the first, 1775; North Mill, 1784, which was destroyed by fire on 12 January 1803 and then rebuilt; it started work again at the end of 1804; West Mill, 1792, commenced working 1796; Reeling Mill, 1897; Round Mill, which took 10 years to build, from 1803 to 1813, and commenced working in 1816; and Milford Mills, 1778. The Belper and Milford mills were not built in partnership with Arkwright. These mills were all Strutt owned and financed.
Other famous 18th-century figures with connections to Derby include the painter Joseph Wright, known as Wright of Derby, who was famous for his revolutionary use of light in his paintings and was an associate of the Royal Academy; and John Whitehurst, a famous clockmaker and philosopher. Erasmus Darwin, doctor, scientist, philosopher and grandfather of Charles Darwin, whose practice was based in Lichfield, Staffordshire was a frequent visitor to Derby, having founded the Derby Philosophical Society.
The beginning of the next century saw Derby emerging as an engineering centre with manufacturers such as James Fox, who exported machine tools to Russia.
In 1840, the North Midland Railway set up its works in Derby and, when it merged with the Midland Counties Railway and the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway, to form the Midland Railway, Derby became its headquarters.
The connection with the railway encouraged others, notably Andrew Handyside, Charles Fox and his son Francis Fox.
A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Normanton Barracks in 1877.
Derby was one of the boroughs reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, and it became a county borough with the Local Government Act 1888. The borough expanded in 1877 to include Little Chester and Litchurch, and then in 1890 to include New Normanton and Rowditch. The borough did not increase substantially again until 1968, when under a recommendation of the Local Government Boundary Commission it was expanded into large parts of the rural district of Belper, Repton and South East Derbyshire. This vastly increased Derby's population from 132,408 in the 1961 census to 219,578 in the 1971 census.
20th century to present dayAn industrial boom began in Derby when Rolls-Royce opened a car and aircraft factory in the town in 1907. In 1923, the Midland Railway became part of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway with headquarters in London. However, Derby remained a major rail manufacturing centre, second only to Crewe and Wolverton. Moreover it remained a design and development centre and in the 'thirties, on the direction of Lord Stamp, the LMS Scientific Research Laboratory was opened on London Road.
In World War I, Derby was targeted by German Zeppelin air bombers, who killed five people in a 1916 raid on the town.
All Saints Church was designated as a cathedral in 1927, signalling that the town was ready for city status.
Slum clearance in the 1920s and 1930s saw the central area of Derby become less heavily populated as families were rehoused on new council estates in the suburbs, where houses for private sale were also constructed. Rehousing, council house building and private housing developments continued on a large scale for some 30 years after the end of World War II in 1945.
Production and repair work continued at the railway works. In December 1947 the Locomotive Works unveiled Britain's first mainline passenger diesel-electric locomotive – "Number 10000". In 1958 production switched over to diesel locomotives completely. Meanwhile the Carriage and Wagon Works were building the first of the Diesel Multiple Units which were to take over many of the services.
In 1964 the British Rail Research Division opened to study all aspects of railway engineering from first principles. Its first success was in drastically improving the reliability and speed of goods trains, work which led to the development of the Advanced Passenger Train.
Derby gained a high profile in sport following the appointment of Brian Clough as manager of Derby County F.C. in 1967. Promotion to the Football League First Division was achieved in 1969, and County were champions of the English league three years later. Following the Clough's resignation in 1973, his successor Dave Mackay guided Derby County to another league title in 1975, but this remains to date the club's last major trophy; relegation followed in 1980 and top flight status was not regained until 1987, since then Derby have spent a total of 11 seasons (1987–1991, 1996–2002, 2007–2008) in the top flight. The club moved from its century-old Baseball Ground in 1997 to the new Pride Park Stadium.
Derby was awarded city status on 7 June 1977 by Queen Elizabeth II to mark the 25th anniversary of her ascension to the throne. The Queen presented the "charter scroll" or 'letters patent' in person on 28 July 1977 on the steps of the Council House to the then Mayor Councillor Jeffrey Tillet (Conservative). Until then, Derby had been one of the few towns in England with a cathedral but not city status.
Derby holds an important position in the history of the Labour movement, because it was one of two seats (the other being Keir Hardie's in Merthyr Tydfil) gained by the recently formed Labour Representation Committee at the 1900 general election. The MP was Richard Bell, General Secretary of the Railway Servants Union. Bell was succeeded in 1910 by Jimmy Thomas and he in turn by the distinguished polymath and Nobel Laureate Philip Noel-Baker in 1936.
Despite its strategic industries (rail and aero-engine), Derby suffered comparatively little damage in both world wars (contrast Bristol and Filton). This may in part have been due to the jamming against the German radio-beam navigations systems (X-Verfahren and Knickebein, camouflage and decoy techniques ('Starfish sites') were built, mainly south of the town, e.g. out in fields near Foremark (ref. Kirk, Felix & Bartnik, 2002, see talk; see also).
Derby has also become a significant cultural centre for the deaf community in the British. Many deaf people move to Derby because of its strong sign language-using community. It is estimated that the deaf population in Derby is at least three times higher than the national average, and that only London has a larger deaf population. The Royal School for the Deaf on Ashbourne Road provides education in British Sign Language and English.
See also: Derby local electionsBy traditional definitions, Derby is the county town of Derbyshire, although Derbyshire's administrative centre has in recent years been Matlock. On 1 April 1997 Derby City Council became again a unitary authority (a status it had held, as a county borough, up until 1974), with the rest of Derbyshire administered from Matlock. On 7 July 2014, Derby's first ever youth mayor (Belal Butt) was elected.
See also: Derby (UK Parliament constituency), Derby North (UK Parliament constituency) and Derby South (UK Parliament constituency)Derby was a single United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency represented by two members of parliament until 1950, when it was divided into the single-member constituencies of Derby North and Derby South.
National HQThe Rail Accident Investigation Branch has its headquarters in The Wharf, a facility in Derby. RAIB has one of its two operational centres in Derby.
GeographyDerby is split into 17 wards.
|Ward||Areas within the ward|
|Abbey||Stockbrook and Normanton (part of)|
|Allestree||Allestree and Markeaton Park|
|Alvaston||Alvaston, Crewton, Litchurch, Pride Park, Wilmorton and Allenton (Part of)|
|Arboretum||City Centre, Pear Tree and Rose Hill|
|Blagreaves||Sunny Hill and Littleover (part of)|
|Boulton||Boulton and Allenton (part of)|
|Chaddesden||Chaddesden (older part of)|
|Chellaston||Chellaston and Shelton Lock|
|Darley||Darley Abbey, Five Lamps, Little Chester (also known as Chester Green), Strutt's Park, Six Streets and West End|
|Derwent||Breadsall Hilltop and Chaddesden (newer part of)|
|Littleover||Littleover (most of) and Heatherton Village|
|Mackworth||Mackworth and Morley Estate|
|Normanton||Normanton (most of) and Austin Estate|
|Oakwood||Oakwood and Chaddesden (part of)|
|Sinfin||Sinfin, Osmaston and Stenson Fields (part of)|
||Buxton, Bakewell, Glossop, Manchester||Duffield, Belper, Matlock||Ilkeston, Heanor, Eastwood, Alfreton, Swanwick Clay Cross, Ripley, Mansfield, Chesterfield, Sheffield|
|Ashbourne, Uttoxeter, Stoke on Trent||Nottingham, Borrowash, Breaston, Long Eaton, Beeston, Ockbrook|
|Burton on Trent, Lichfield, Birmingham||Swadlincote, Castle Donington, Melbourne, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Coventry||Kegworth, Loughborough, Leicester|
IndustryDerby's two biggest employers, Rolls-Royce plc and the Toyota Motor Corporation are engaged in engineering manufacturing. Other companies of note include railway systems engineering firm Bombardier Transportation who manufacture railway rolling stock at the Derby Carriage and Wagon Works, HeroTSC, who deal with much of Sky's telephone support, and Alstom who manufacture large power plant boilers and heat exchangers.
Derby was for many years a railway centre, being the former headquarters of the Midland Railway, with both British Rail workshops and research facilities in the town. Although much less important than in years gone by, limited train manufacture still continues in Derby and Derby railway station retains an important position in the railway network. The city is favoured as a site for a national railway centre.
From 1922 Sinfin Lane was the home of the 62-acre (250,000 m2) site of International Combustion, originally manufacturers of machinery for the automatic delivery of pulverised fuel to furnaces and boilers, and later producing steam-generating boilers for use in electrical generating plant such as used in power stations. In the 1990s the firm was bought by Rolls-Royce plc and then sold on again to ABB Group.
Derby was the home of Core Design (originally based on Ashbourne Road), who developed the world famous video game Tomb Raider. When Derby's inner ring road was completed in 2010, a section of it was named 'Lara Croft Way' after the game's heroine Lara Croft.
One of Derby's longest-established businesses is Royal Crown Derby, which has been producing porcelain since the 1750s.
The Midlands Co-operative Society, a predecessor of Central England Co-operative, traced its origins to Derby Co-operative Provident Society which, in 1854, was one of the first co-operatives in the region.
Infinity Park Derby is a planned business park for aerospace, rail and automotive technology adjacent to the Rolls-Royce site in Sinfin. In December 2014, the government announced that the park would gain enterprise zone status by being added to Nottingham Enterprise Zone.
ClimateUnder the Köppen climatic classification, Derby, in spite of its distance to large bodies of water, has an oceanic climate along with the rest of the British Isles. The readings are from the closest station available in Watnall, but climate tends to be very similar between stations and cities in the region, although the Watnall station is located at a somewhat higher elevation, 17 kilometres (11 mi) to the north.
|[hide]Climate data for Watnall|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.6
|Average low °C (°F)||1.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||61.2
|Avg. precipitation days||11||10||11||10||9||9||9||9||9||11||11||12||121|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||54.7||73.2||104.2||141.0||181.6||170.6||191.1||180.1||131.2||99.4||63.7||49.2||1,440.1|
|Source: Met Office|
LandmarksDerby Cathedral tower is 212 feet (68.6 meters) tall to the tip of the pinnacles. This has been home to a pair of breeding peregrine falcons since 2006. Four webcams monitor the falcons here.
Derby Gaol is a visitor attraction based in the dungeons of the Derbyshire County Gaol which dates back to 1756.
Derby Industrial Museum is situated in Derby Silk Mill and shows the industrial heritage and technological achievement of Derby, including Rolls-Royce aero engines, railways, mining, quarrying and foundries. Currently closed due to council cuts. The Silk Mill stands at the southern end of the 24 km (15 mi) stretch of the River Derwent designated a World Heritage Site in 2001.
The skyline of the inner city changed in 1968 when the inner ring road with its two new crossings of the River Derwent was built. The route of the ring road went through the St. Alkmund's Church and its Georgian churchyard, the only Georgian square in Derby. Both were demolished to make way for the road, a move still criticised today. Thus the editor (Elizabeth Williamson) of the 2nd edition of Pevsner for Derbyshire wrote:- '...the character and cohesion of the centre has been completely altered by the replacement of a large number of C18 houses in the centre by a multi-lane road. As a traffic scheme this road is said to be a triumph; as townscape it is a disaster.'
Places of interest
- Cathedral Quarter
- Darley Abbey
- Derby Arboretum
- Derby Canal
- Derby Cathedral
- Derby Museum and Art Gallery
- Derby Industrial Museum (Silk Mill)
- St Mary's Church, Derby
- Derby Friargate Station (of which all that remains is Handyside's bridge and the bridge across Friargate)
- Markeaton Park Light Railway, a heritage railway
- Pride Park Stadium (Derby County F.C.) and its predecessor the Baseball Ground (now demolished)
- River Derwent
- St Helen's House, Derby
- Derby Catacombs
- Intu shopping centre
- Saint Benedict Catholic School and Performing Arts College secondary school
- Royal Crown Derby Museum and Factory Tour
- Pickford's House Museum
On 16 March 2011, Mercian Way, the final section of the city's inner ring road, was opened to traffic. This new section connects Burton Road with Uttoxeter New Road, and crosses Abbey Street. Abbey Street is the only road between the two ends from which Mercian Way can be accessed.
Bold Lane Car Park in Derby has been cited as one of the ten most secure places in the world.
Derby station is operated by East Midlands Trains and the city is served by expresses to London, the North East and South West, provided by East Midlands Trains and CrossCountry. There also remain local stations at Peartree and Spondon, although services are limited, especially at the former.
The Great Northern Railway's "Derbyshire and North Staffordshire Extension" formerly ran through Derby Friargate Station, from Colwick and Nottingham to Egginton Junction. After closure, part of the route west of Derby was used by British Rail as a test track. Today, the trackbed either side of Derby is blocked only by road development and has been converted to a Sustrans cycle track. The ornate cast iron bridge by Andrew Handyside across Friargate is still in place, as is his bridge over the river.
However, as described above, during the 20th century, railway manufacturing developed elsewhere, while in Derby the emphasis shifted to other industries. Even though it had pioneered the introduction of diesel locomotives, new production finished in 1966. Repair work gradually diminished until, finally the locomotive works closed, the land being redeveloped as Pride Park. The only buildings remaining are those visible from Platform 6 of the station.
The Carriage and Wagon Works continues to build trains under Bombardier Transportation. The Railway Technical Centre continues to house railway businesses, including the headquarters of DeltaRail Group, formerly the British Rail Research Division.
AirEast Midlands Airport is situated about fifteen miles (24 km) from Derby city centre. Its proximity to Derby, the fact that the airport is in Leicestershire, and the traditional rivalry between the three cities (Derby, Leicester and Nottingham), meant that there was controversy concerning the airport's decision to prefix its name with Nottingham in 2004. In 2006, Nottingham East Midlands Airport reverted to its previous name. The airport is served by budget airlines, including Ryanair and Jet2, with services to domestic and European destinations.
Derby Airfield, located approximately 7 miles (11 km) southwest of the city centre has grass runways targeted at general aviation.
Bus and coach
Local bus services in and around Derby are run by a number of companies, but principally Trent Barton and Arriva Midlands. The city is on National Express' London to Manchester and Yorkshire to the South West routes.
Between 1932 and 1967, Derby Corporation operated the Derby trolleybus system. The last trolleybus ran on 9 September 1967. Several Derby vehicles have been preserved at Sandtoft and the East Anglia Transport Museum.